Designing a house according to drawings and sectional plans

A section of a house is considered to be a completed drawing that depicts the structure and all internal features, as well as the components of the frame structure of the house. On such a plan you can see the location of various elements of the building: windows, doors or even interior items. This layout will help you determine in advance what is needed to arrange the room.

Drawing of a two-story house to create a project

House plan: from drawing to finished project

For many, a cozy country house is a lifelong dream, where every hour spent alone with nature contributes to relaxation. It is important that housing is not only beautiful, but also comfortable and multifunctional. The realization of a dream begins with the creation of a project, the basis of which is drawings and a house plan , containing a detailed layout and communications diagram. This material will tell you how to properly organize the constructive stage. Projects of houses and cottages: photos, videos, interesting planning ideas (read more)

Before construction, you need to make a house plan to avoid mistakes that can delay the process for a long time.

Geological exploration of the site

Without it, you cannot begin work on creating a scheme for future housing. It is very important to research the characteristics of the area in advance. Find out the composition of the soil, find out the depth of the groundwater layers. The optimal time for reconnaissance activities is spring. It is during this period that it will be possible to obtain the most reliable indicators.

How to make a project: preparatory stages of creating a drawing

Before making a drawing of a private house, you need to decide what its direct purpose will be: whether it will serve as a country vacation spot in the summer or as housing for year-round living for the whole family. The number of household members must also be taken into account. In this case, you need to take into account the lifestyle of family members, their tastes, preferences and hobbies.

Before you start creating a drawing, you need to decide on the number of residents of the house.

If the future inhabitants of the house are adherents of a quiet lifestyle, then the building should be located on an area that is located away from the roadway and neighboring areas. The best place is in the depths of the garden. For open, sociable people, a house can be built at the beginning of the site, exposing the facade of the cottage and the beautiful landscape in front of it. In technical terms, geodetic data obtained by studying the territory are especially important. They will indicate the features of the surface, the composition of the soil and the presence of slopes, which will allow you to create a plan of the area.

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In order for the house design to be streamlined, the process is conditionally divided into stages, which are then displayed in the following sections of the finished house project:

  • sketch;
  • architectural;
  • constructive;
  • engineering and technical;
  • design or finishing.

Having decided on the location and purpose of the future home, you can begin designing the house. For this purpose, initial sketches are made. If they have basic artistic skills, the owners will be able to do this on their own, even without a special computer program for building a house. Based on the sketches, a basic sketch is drawn up. In accordance with it, all other detailed drawings are prepared and the layout of the future building is determined.

Interior details

How to make several interior objects on a house drawing? If you are using the program on a computer, then all you need to do is find the template insert and drag the ones you need onto the drawing. In other cases, you will have to draw everything manually. You can use the same templates by drawing them on a piece of paper. In this case, special attention should be paid to the bathroom, since the toilet, sink and bathtub should be located in close proximity to the sewerage system. The more compact you arrange them, the less pipes you will have to spend during construction. The details do not need to be professionally drawn. The main thing is that you yourself understand what is where.

What to consider when drawing up a house plan

Already at the stage of drawing up a sketch, you need to clearly determine the number of floors, the type of roof, the appearance of the facade and front parts of the house, up to the number of windows, balconies, the presence of a terrace or attic. The preliminary design also involves sketches of the building in longitudinal and transverse sections, which indicate the design features and materials from which the house is supposed to be built.

An example of a drawing of a one-story brick house with an attic floor.

On a note! Experienced designers do not recommend making bedrooms very spacious, since large rooms can contribute to the formation of a feeling of anxiety in their inhabitants. Therefore, bedrooms should be compact and cozy.

Before drawing a house plan, you need to decide on the location of the site and study the orientation relative to the cardinal points. Based on this data, the location of the rooms is determined. Their number depends on how many people will live in the building and how often guests will come for a long time. The placement of premises and the functional purpose of each of them is also an important element.

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Next, you need to determine which specific rooms will be allocated to family members, and which to guests and employees, if it is planned to form a certain staff. We should not forget about the layout of the premises in which the whole family will gather - this is the dining room, hall or living room.

It is important to take into account the preferences and hobbies of the inhabitants of the house in order to determine the need to include in the layout a gym, swimming pool or sauna, winter garden or greenhouse, library with an office or a spacious workshop.

When drawing up a preliminary design of a house, you need to take into account all the wishes of future residents.

Drawing furniture

How to draw a drawing of a house in order to get the maximum representation of the future building? Try adding a few more objects, for example: a sofa, a dining table, a bookcase and so on. This will give you an idea of ​​the approximate size of your home, and will also help you know what furniture you'll need to purchase in the future. You should not go into too much detail about small details, as they will only interfere with the drawing. It will be enough to schematically depict the TV in the form of a small rectangle, which stands on a slightly larger rectangle - a table.

Features of drawing up house projects: drawings and plans as the main part of planning

Having decided on the layout of the house, you need to mentally imagine the life of the family in the building, think through all the elements so as not to miss anything. Therefore, there is no need to rush into creating the final layout of the house. The finished drawings and plans of the house must be as perfect as possible so that the final result satisfies all household members, and the constructed home lasts for the maximum number of years without reconstruction or alterations. The final version of the sketch should be discussed at a family council, taking into account all the details, down to the smallest detail.

First of all, the desired number of floors is indicated in the house plan. It can be a spacious one-story house, a compact two-story cottage, or a luxurious two-story mansion with an attic.

The internal layout shown on building drawings should include the following areas:

  • living rooms;
  • utility rooms;
  • common areas;
  • additional extensions.

A one-story house is divided into zones using partitions, as well as placing rooms of the same functionality in one wing. In two-story cottages, bedrooms, guest and children's rooms are traditionally located on the second floor, and on the first there are utility and service premises for common use.

House project structure: building plan, drawings and dimensions

Before you make a house project yourself, you need to have a clear idea of ​​what kind of document it is and what sections it consists of. Firstly, it is the main assistant and guide during the construction stage, which will help you create a house according to all the rules, make it reliable, comfortable and functional, and most importantly, safe for living.

An example of a project for a two-story house with a two-car garage.

Note! Building a house without a design is a huge risk. Without comprehensive information about the future home, it is impossible to control all expenses, calculate the required amount of materials and the size of the premises. Chaotic construction can have disastrous consequences in the form of subsidence of the foundation, inconvenient stairs and small rooms.

Secondly, a project is a document that provides control over the quality of construction and the consumption of materials. In the absence of estimate documentation, not only will the quality be low, but the construction itself will be illiquid. It is simply impossible to register such a house as real estate.

The house project consists of two main parts:

  • architectural and construction, which includes architectural drawings of facades and detailed construction diagrams indicating dimensions and materials;
  • engineering design, usually consisting of drawings of plumbing, sewerage, electrical, heating and ventilation systems.

The classic version of the project with drawings of a two-story house includes the following sections:

  • architectural, detailed by floor;
  • constructive with a detailed layout of the house;
  • electrical wiring plan;
  • water supply and sewerage scheme;
  • heating and ventilation system installation plan;
  • gas installation project;
  • project passport and explanatory note.

The main parts of the house project are architectural, construction and engineering design.
On a note! Drawings can be made manually or using special computer programs for online house design.

What to focus on when making drawings

The project should be started collectively, taking into account all the engineering and structural characteristics of the house. When constructing a building, you need to think about the possibilities of arranging electricity, water supply and sewerage even when purchasing a land plot. Even if the development of drawings is carried out very carefully, an ill-informed person may still not take into account all the subtleties. Because of this, unforeseen circumstances may arise during construction that will slow down construction for quite a significant period of time.

The modern variety of building materials and accessible information greatly simplify the work for private developers. Nowadays you can easily find on the Internet a huge number of all kinds of free standard projects, from where it is not difficult to choose something suitable for yourself.

But it should be remembered that no one will provide good and high-quality work for free for widespread use. Everything that is presented on the Internet is not a complete result, which requires very serious modification with your own hands.

List of required architectural drawings of a house with dimensions

Architectural and construction drawings require the indication of exact dimensions and contain characteristics of the general parameters of the house, individual buildings, structures and their parts. Detailed plans for each floor are included here, providing for the placement of living rooms and utility rooms. The area of ​​all elements, the height of ceilings, and the location of openings for windows and doors are indicated.

For example, drawings for a two-story house with an attic in the architectural and construction section are arranged in the following order:

  • basement plan;
  • ground floor plan;
  • second floor plan;
  • attic plan.

Also in this section there should be a plan for the roof truss structure. To draw a drawing, it is necessary to depict the complete system of structural elements of the floors in section. The table attached to the drawing indicates the specification of the parts of the roof truss structure, a complete list of the range of materials and their quantity. The roof plan is drawn up separately, it indicates the shape, dimensions, roof pitch and angles of inclination, as well as the location of ventilation outlets, dormer windows, hatches, and attic windows.

Basement floor plan, where 1 is a hall, 2 is a recreation room, 3 is a furnace and laundry room, 4 is a vestibule, 5 is a storage room, 6 is a storage room, 7 is a bathroom, 8 is a sauna, 9 is a gym, 10 is a terrace.

Drawings of private houses must include several sections indicating all the elements of the structure along or across. They are performed sequentially from the roof to the foundation. Thus, the cross-section shows the dimensions and location of the floor, all ceilings and roof. There should be five similar cuts made from different sides.

Drawing the perimeter

Finally, you can start designing. If you want to draw a house plan on a computer, and not on a piece of paper, then this is your right. Modern technologies make it possible to draw drawings much faster and more efficiently, because in case of an error, it will be enough to simply press the cancel button, rather than redrawing the plan on a new sheet or taking a long time to erase the graphite with an eraser. If you still decide to do it the old fashioned way, it is recommended to take a large sheet of paper so that you do not have problems with lack of space. In this case, it is better to have too much than not enough.

So, first you need to draw the perimeter of the house. It must take into account the total area of ​​the room and the location of the front door. This stage of work must be carried out with extreme care, since even the slightest error in calculations can make the entire drawing unsuitable for planning. To make it more convenient for you, it is recommended to select the correct scaling. When using whatman paper, it would be quite appropriate to take 10 centimeters of drawn space as 1 meter of real space. If you work on an A4 sheet, then this figure is halved. If you decide to also design a second floor, then do it on a separate sheet of paper so as not to get confused. Just be sure to sign the drawings.

Sectional drawings of a house and images of facades from different sides

It is impossible to draw a house project without depicting all the facades, which clearly demonstrate the external state of the front entrance, rear and side views. Thus, there should be four sheets where it is necessary to draw drawings depicting:

  • front facade;
  • side facade No. 1 (right side);
  • side facade No. 2 (left side);
  • facade of the back of the house.

A house elevation drawing actually displays the original sketches and outline plan of the building. It can be easily created using special computer programs, therefore, before drawing a house project, you need to think carefully about everything, consult with specialists in various fields in construction and coordinate all the details with family members. The final version should please everyone in the household.

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After the drawings of the facades, a separate list in the table indicates the specification of the elements of carpentry - doors and windows, and the method of opening them is taken into account. For each product, clear shapes and parameters are indicated, the presence and quantity of glass is determined. A two-story house can have up to three dozen types of such products.

Drawings depicting the facade of a two-story house from different sides.

On a note! You can create a project for a small two-story house by analogy with apartment drawings. The first floor is based on the plan of a two-room apartment, and the second floor includes a bedroom, two guest rooms and an additional bathroom.

Constructive section: how to draw drawings and diagrams of individual elements

The structural section is an already detailed part of the project, which contains both general and individual data, various layouts of building elements: foundation, staircase structures, floors, trusses. Also included in this part are detailed drawings of all components, which indicate the specifics of products and materials.

The cross-sectional drawing of the foundation deciphers the dimensions of the strip fortifications of the house, the depth of their occurrence and the materials that are necessary for their construction.

The image of the foundation is presented in the form of the following plans and drawings:

  • general foundation plan;
  • longitudinal section diagrams;
  • cross-sectional drawings.

Certain types of drawings provide a cross-section of floor slabs, their longitudinal and transverse sections at different elevations:

  • overlap plan at point +0.00;
  • at + 3.00;
  • at an altitude of +6.00.

At the constructive stage, layout plans for the foundation, floors, and trusses are made.
Assemblies of structural parts are objects of a special structure, including stairs and flights both outside and inside the premises. Accurate calculations for strength and static strength are also given here.

This section of the project contains in separate tables the characteristics and sequence of use of materials, in particular:

  • steel reinforcement;
  • reinforced concrete elements;
  • wooden crossbars.

Engineering section: drawings of rooms and communications

The engineering section contains diagrams and drawings of electrical supply, water supply, sewerage, ventilation and heating systems. Explanation tables include data on equipment specifications and general calculations. These are separate components of the building located inside the future home.

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The plumbing section contains a plan for the location of communications in the basement and on each floor. The sewerage system diagram is carried out in a similar manner. Sometimes these two plans are depicted in one drawing. There is also an axonometric diagram of the installation of cold and hot water supply.

Drawings of electrical supply, water supply, sewerage, ventilation and heating systems are prepared at the engineering stage.

The heating installation section presents floor-by-floor drawings, starting with the basement, and a general heat supply diagram for the entire house. Gas equipment and electrical supply systems are shown in separate drawings with individual layout diagrams of gas and electrical installations.

In order to prevent thunder danger, it is necessary to include the installation of a lightning rod in the modeling of houses, since the absence of such protection can not only lead to destruction, but also pose a threat to the life and health of the inhabitants of the house. The installation of a lightning rod is carried out according to a separate scheme with the involvement of qualified specialists.

Security alarm system in house plan drawings

Before you design a house yourself, you need to consider the need to install additional systems, for example, a security alarm. Its design is the development of a separate plan that provides for the structure of a network of engineering devices. The main goal is to provide varying degrees of protection for construction projects. Drawing up security system drawings for a home is an individual process, as it involves the operation of the alarm system in specific conditions.

When creating such a project, it is necessary to take into account a number of rules and regulatory requirements. In particular, when drawing up drawings, you should act in accordance with SNiP standards and other technical documents.

Key factors to consider:

  • the purpose of the premises, according to which equipment of a certain complexity is selected;
  • the area of ​​the object that is subject to protection, as well as the features of its architecture and design;
  • determination of the type of alarm, which can be wired or wireless.

A diagram of the location of security sensors, where the opening sensor is marked in yellow, motion in red, glass breaking in green, reader in blue, siren in blue, motion detection zone in pink.
The alarm project plan is subject to mandatory approval by the relevant organizations, and only after that detailed drawings of the house security system are drawn up.

Instructions for drawing a section of a house

We draw the vertical and horizontal axes of the building. By horizontal axes I mean the lines that will become the top edges of the floors.

After this, we set aside 190 mm from the vertical axes in both directions. From the horizontal lines it is laid down 300 mm - this way overlaps are formed.

The resulting mesh has a lot of unnecessary elements, so we cut off the extra lines, thus getting a section of the house, which is about to be ready.

We begin to draw landings and flights of stairs.

We follow the instructions in the following diagram.

We copy the resulting flight of stairs to the underlying floors.

Let's move on to drawing the roof. It should be noted that depending on the location of the cut, the roof cut can vary significantly.

After this, we move on to drawing the foundation blocks and the foundation itself.

The matter remains small. The section of the house must be edited by removing unnecessary lines and adding the necessary elements. The latter include openings, stair railings and balconies.

Related documentation for the project and construction drawings

A construction project is not only a set of sketches, drawings and tables, it contains detailed information about each of the stages of construction and individual areas of work. This allows us to ultimately obtain a complex capital construction.

On a note! It is fundamentally important to locate the children's room next to the parents' room, so that when the child has the slightest need, the parents are nearby. If at the time of construction there are no children in the family yet or they are still small, you need to think in advance about the presence of a special playroom or area. If space allows, then several rooms can be allocated for children's games.

Each project, in addition to the drawings already listed, must include the following documents:

  • architectural and structural characteristics;
  • description of the functionality of the building;
  • technical and economic data such as area, cubic capacity, height;
  • description of engineering solutions;
  • types, list and quantity of construction and finishing materials.

Guided by the project, you can organize the construction process, establish the sequence of work and determine financial costs.
The architectural passport contains a copy of the designer's license, an explanatory note, facade colors, floor plans, axial sections and a roof plan.

Computer programs for house design: reliable assistants in creating projects

Modern computer technologies allow you to quickly visualize all your desires and depict the home of your dreams. Moreover, thanks to special programs, you can independently carry out 3D design of your home. Even inexperienced users can do this using, for example, Google SketchUp. In this service you can design both residential and commercial premises.

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Using an online house plan, right in your browser, you can create models of buildings indicating the exact dimensions and even the texture of materials. Offline programs require downloading and installation on a PC, so the computer must have sufficient RAM.

The house designer allows you to design a virtual luxury cottage or small country house using individual samples and details. Such programs make it possible not only to design different models, but also to create a list of materials and parts required for purchase, and even calculate the approximate cost of the project.

Using computer programs, you can easily design a house yourself.

Popular electronic products include AutoCAD and KOMPAS-3D. These are universal programs that can be used to create house and interior designs. Their main drawback is their high price. Cheaper but less functional is Ashampoo Home Designer - this is an ideal choice for beginners in the design business.

Drawings of private houses are the main element in a construction project. Not only the reliability of the structure itself, but also the service life of communications and housing support systems depends on their correct implementation, which makes it durable, comfortable and cozy for a family to live in. Therefore, you should approach the issue of creating drawings as carefully and responsibly as possible.

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Independent design work and its advantages

You can easily draw up a housing plan yourself. Of course, this will require using all your abilities and taking a very responsible approach to its formation. After all, you don’t need any special skills to determine exactly where the technical buildings and the main building will be located. But when carrying out communication connections, or rather, when planning them, the participation of professionals is vital. Only such a thorough approach will allow you to build a truly good home that will serve you and your family for many years.

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